Advertising Glossary

As an advertising professional, you’re interested in more details about how the INVIDI system works and how it might help you in your efforts as an advertiser or a service provider.  To help you out, we’ve prepared detailed definitions to the most common terms that our INVIDI customers ask about.

Ad Decision Engine (ADE) INVIDI application existing inside of the set-top box (STB). The ADE defines and delivers the ad play requests to the STB based on:

·       Household characteristics assigned to the STB

·       Orderline information

·       Overall ad importance

ad inserter A server or group of servers that stores and plays ad files for insertion into breaks. Note that this server just plays the ad; it does not actually perform the insertion. The insertion is performed by the ad splicer.
ad insertion channel A video/audio stream consisting of black video and silent audio, into which the ad splicer inserts addressable ads. These streams are hidden so that viewers cannot manually tune to them; only the STB firmware can tune to them when instructed to do so by the ADE.
addressable ad Television ad that can be directed to a particular audience with specified demographic characteristics.
addressable TV advertising technologies Enable advertisers to selectively segment TV audiences and serve different ads or groups of ads within a common program or navigation screen. Segmentation can occur at geographic, demographic, behavioral and (in some cases) self-selected individual household levels, through cable, satellite and Internet Protocol television (IPTV) delivery systems and STBs.
AdProcessor (ADP) Facilitates smooth transitions between the networks and addressable ads by time-compressing the original ad and inserting black frames at the head and tail of the ad to replace frames removed by the time-compression process, as well as to provide MPEG I-frames to allow MPEG decoders to more quickly begin playing the ad content.
Advatar® INVIDI’s Addressable Advertising solution – enables STBs to intelligently choose an ad based on demographic information. Works within a TV operator’s infrastructure.
Aggregation Addressable ad-delivery mode that is not schedule based. Instead, the STB detects an aggregation avail and selects the most relevant addressable ad for the current audience.
allocation Portion of inventory made up of one or more avails that is available for addressable ad insertions. Each allocation is assigned to a specific sales model and owner. Process of scheduling available ads.
asset Ad copy in the form of MPEG files to be delivered to the STBs in the DVR delivery model, or that reside on the ad inserter or content management system in the insertion channel delivery model.
audience focus Description of the audience demographics for which an asset is most appropriate.
avail Time period within the break into which addressable ads can be inserted. Sometimes referred to as a “spot”.
break A span of time, for example, two minutes, set aside by the network for a local operator when a commercial break occurs on the network channel. Breaks can consist of multiple avails and are triggered by one SCTE cue.
break window Predefined times in which addressable ad opportunities will occur. Break windows have a start time and an end time that generally coincide with the program that is airing. Breaks are numbered by their positions in the break window. Average windows contain one to two breaks per half hour.
client Advertiser or other party that is responsible for an order. All orders must specify a client, with the exception of ZTA orders, which are generated automatically by the Schedule Importer job.
Cloud Decision System (CDS) A cloud-based component of the Advatar product suite that enables addressable ad placement for STBs and IP-addressable devices using internet-based protocols. Intended for use in systems that use STBs that do not contain the ADE, as well as systems that use OTT devices.
cost per mille (CPM) Used to measure the cost of an ad campaign per one thousand impressions.
cue message A digital signal that triggers an ad insertion on a network. Each break has one cue message, sent several seconds prior to the break. A cue in the compressed digital domain.
Designated Market Area (DMA) Geographic area making up a distinct television market as defined by Nielsen Media Research Company. Used for television audience analysis and for planning and buying media for advertising sales. Also known as a “market”.
desired impressions The total number of impressions that you want a particular ad to return over the course of a campaign, from all STBs to which the ad is targeted.
digital video recorder (DVR) Device or software that records video in a digital format to a disk drive. In an Advatar system this refers to the DVR function of the STB.
effective cost per mille (eCPM) Effective Cost per Thousand; a metric for measuring advertising revenue generated across various marketing channels, calculated by dividing total earnings by the total number of impressions in thousands.
frequency The number of times an ad is delivered to the same household over a specified time period.
household classification Properties, both dynamic and static, of the household where an STB running the INVIDI application resides. Static properties are delivered as instructions from the Advatar system (geography properties and household tags). Dynamic properties are updated by the STB application as it determines viewership and probable household composition.
impression The countable record of an ad that has been viewed.
insertion channel Transport streams used for delivering addressable ad content to the STB. Also known as “ad insertion streams”.
insertion-channel delivery A method of delivering ads in the Advatar system by inserting addressable ads into hidden insertion channels and directing the STBs to switch to one of these hidden channels to play the ads during the break, then switch back to the main channel (network programming) after the break.
inventory  In a programmatic (machine-based media buying) / internet environment inventory equals impressions. In a spot-buying environment inventory equals avails. We can use the generic term “inventory”, but need to specify the environment when doing so. Ad breaks available to be scheduled and aired.
linear television The traditional broadcast system in which a viewer watches a scheduled TV program at the time it’s broadcasted, and on the channel, it’s originally presented on.
maximum viewings Limits the number of times that a particular ad can be played on any particular STB per day, per week, or per campaign, as needed. The larger this value, the more times a given viewer could see this ad during the specified time period. Leaving this value at 0 allows the ad to play a virtually unlimited number of times per STB.
Multiple Advertiser Spot Optimization (MASO) Addressable ad delivery mode where the Advatar system schedules addressable ads from several different vendors into inventory allocated for these types of ads.

While this sales model is still supported in the Advatar system, its use is strongly discouraged, and references to MASO are being removed from training materials.

Multiple Video Program Distributors (MVPD) Cable, satellite, and telco companies that provide television services.
network spot Underlying ad playing on the network stream that is overlaid with an addressable ad.
Non-linear television A non-traditional means of viewing TV content that enables “time-shifting” (not watching during the scheduled broadcast) using streaming, DVR, video-on-demand, over-the-top (OTT) or mobile TV technology.
opt in/opt out Process for subscribers to indicate desire to receive addressable ads.
Over-the-Top (OTT) Media delivered by internet-based protocols without the involvement of a multiple system operator (MSO).
reach Total number of unique STBs that serve an ad over a specific period of time. In other words, an estimate of the number of STBs that could play a particular ad.
schedule CCMS schedule or equivalent generated by a traffic and billing system to describe the approximate timing for ads to be delivered for a particular network. There are unique schedules for each network and for each day.
set-top box (STB) A device that receives and decodes digital television signals, as well as other data, for display on a subscriber television set.
Single Advertiser Spot Optimization (SASO) Addressable ad delivery mode in which alternative addressable ads are delivered at the same time as a default ad that is scheduled through the traffic and billing system. The default ad and all alternative ads are owned by a single advertiser.
spot Refers to a location in a break into which an addressable ad can be placed.
spot optimization Addressable ad delivery mode where alternative addressable ads are delivered at the same time as a default ad that is scheduled through the traffic and billing system. See also Multiple Advertiser Spot Optimization and Single Advertiser Spot Optimization.
third-party data Information that an established data company collects indirectly or aggregates from others and then sells to ad buyers.
Video on Demand (VOD) An interactive TV technology that allows subscribers to view programming in real time or download programs and view them later.
zone Area defined by the MVPD in which all of the STBs receive the same content for a given network stream. The Advatar system is then used to manage what type of addressable ad content is delivered to each of these areas.
Zone Target Area (ZTA) A virtual zone that can be used to define a subset of viewers from a larger physical zone. Each virtual zone receives scheduling per network that defines the insertion opportunities for that virtual zone.


Rather talk to a live person than look through our dictionary of terms? Contact us and we’ll have one of our team members get back to you to answer your questions.